Wine Sediment – A natural by-product of winemaking

Sediment at the bottom of wine glass

What is Wine Sediment?

Sediment is any matter that is deposited to the sides and bottom of the bottle.  It may be small crystals of tartaric acid found in white wines (so called wine diamonds), or flakey dark matter that flows from the bottle when the last glass of red wine is poured.

Sediment is safe.  It is entirely organic and comes from the grapes themselves.

Sediment formation is not due to poor wine making practices.  Rather it is a clear indicator of minimally invasive wine making techniques that aim to improve the quality of wine and reduce wine additives so commonly used in “industrial wine making”.

Sediment can form during the fermentation process or while a wine matures in a bottle.


Many winemakers are moving toward not fining or filtering their wines in order to preserve the integrity of flavour and quality of the wine.

Tracy-Lynne MacLellan
https://justwineapp.com/article/wine-201-appearance-red-wine

Wine Industry Standards

Wine industry-imposed standards have created a customer perception that “no sediment” wine is necessary.  This can be accomplished with (1) filtration processes to remove particles (and possibly flavor) from the wine and (2) stabilizer additions which chemically suspend particles and prevent settling.

At Dolio Winery, we think these standards are a mistake on the part of the wine industry. Our winemaking style of minimal intervention does not suggest we’re paying less attention to our wines. It means we’re not stripping away all of the delicious nuances of the wines. If a wine throws some sediment, that’s an indication that we’ve preserved more subtle flavors.


Long-Aged Wines

One of the key wine production goals of Dolio Winery is to introduce the concept of long-aged wines to our customers.  We define long-aged wines as having spent approximately 28-36 months in either barrels, amphorae, or stainless-steel tanks in the winery.  After bottling, the wines are held a minimum of one year. This means that most Dolio wines are nearly four and, more likely, five years old before release.  

Dolio wine aging in barrels
Dolio wine aging in barrels

Benefits of long-aged wine

A wine with aging in the range of five years has reached a stability point where most dynamic changes that occur to wine are complete.  This means that bottle after bottle, a consumer will experience a more uniform and consistent taste experience.

In addition, aged wines have a tendency to be smoother, more balanced (between acid and tannins), and have deeper flavors that lend to a more complete taste profile. Although the fruit forwardness of young wines may be reduced by long-aging, additional aroma and taste potential can be realized.  This means better pairing with food, or just an overall improved tasting sensation when the wine is consumed without food.

Often times customers will buy wine and “set it aside” to age and develop sensory characteristics not found in young wines. Dolio Winery is cellaring wines for an extended period of time so our customers can purchase a long-aged wine and enjoy the benefits of aging right away. 

Long-aged wine side effect: Sediment

Sediment in red wine is caused by the precipitation of color molecules called anthocyanins, tannins, and perhaps lees from fermentation.  Completely natural, they come from grape skins, seeds, stems, and yeast.  Most lees are effectively removed before aging by the use of gravity and racking (moving wine from container to container).  

Over time, very small anthocyanin and tannin molecules which have been suspended in wine will link together, form larger molecules that are too complex to remain dissolved in wine, fall out of suspension and create sediment. The process continues well after bottling.


Don’t Want Sediment in Your Glass?

Several options exist to keep sediment out of your glass.

A Bordeaux bottle, aerator with filter and decanter can all be used to keep sediment out of your wine glass.
A Bordeaux bottle, aerator with filter and decanter can all be used to keep sediment out of your wine glass.

Use the Bottle

The Bordeaux style wine bottle is one good example of sediment management in the wine container itself.  The bottle shoulders exist to help catch sediment when poured slowly.  If you want to see how this is accomplished, just ask us to demonstrate it next time you are in the tasting room. 

Filter While Pouring

Pouring filters and aeration combo gadgets do an excellent job at capturing sediment while improving taste characteristics through aeration.  One such unit, the Rabbit Aerator Shower Funnel with Sediment Strainer is reasonably priced at $17 and can be purchased online or at the tasting room.

Decant Your Wine

Finally, decanting is another excellent method for controlling sediment.  Decanters don’t have to be elaborate or expensive.  We’ve found excellent examples at local specialty shops that capture sediment in a similar manner as the Bordeaux bottle shoulder mentioned previously.


Dolio Wines

Sediment will be in Dolio wines as a naturally occurring by-product of wine aging.  Now you know what sediment actually is, why it is there and how to keep it from your glass.


Further Reading

What’s The Gunk in My Wine?
Jim Gordon
https://www.winemag.com/2019/03/05/gunk-in-my-wine-sediment/?fbclid=IwAR38ocXjTKhadl4snG5FfKvCvhE2v5XhJb1WmQXBVYspdxOGAbxoB41Lhb0

The Gritty Truth: Why is there a Sediment in my Wine?
Kelsey Chesterfield 
https://www.goldmedalwineclub.com/blog/post/the-gritty-truth-why-is-there-sediment-in-my-wine

When wine throws a sediment
Dan Berger
https://napavalleyregister.com/wine/columnists/dan-berger/when-wine-throws-a-sediment/article_4c24b5ba-1f34-5a73-a748-c96656b0efd9.html

Aging Gracefully
Erik Matthews
https://winemakermag.com/article/55-aging-gracefully

Primitivo (aka Zinfandel)

Dolio Primitivo on Tasting Room wall

The Grape

Primitivo is a grape varietal primarily grown in Italy’s Puglia region (in the heel of the boot). It is also grown in California and Washington.

 In 1967, Austin Goheen, plant pathologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Professor at the University of California at Davis, was the first academic to realize that Primitivo and Zinfandel could be identical varieties. By 1994, collaboration between UC Davis and Italy’s Experimental Viticultural Institute of Conegliano brought definitive proof that the two varieties were genetically identical. Further research culminated in 2003’s genetic analysis that Italy’s Primitivo, the United States’ Zinfandel, and Croatia’s Crljenak kaštelanski/Pribidrag (now known as Tribidrag) all share the same DNA profile.

Adriatic_Sea_map
Adriatic Sea map courtesy of en.wikipedia.org

The three clonal lines for the variety have evolved independently over time. A 2005 research report from a 2000 to 2003 study of Zinfandel and Primitivo plants in Fresno, California concluded that Primitivo ripened earlier, had similar or higher yield, and had similar or lower susceptibility to sour rot.

Croatia to Italy

In the 18th century, the grapes were brought across the Adriatic Sea from Croatia to Italy where they were planted and studied by a priest, Don Francesco Filippo Indellicati. Because the Tribidrag grapes ripened earlier than other varietals, he named them Primitivo, which translates to “first one”. (It is worthwhile to note that the Croatian name “Tribidrag” is derived from a Greek phrase meaning “early ripening”.) The grapes easily thrived in Puglia’s climate and became the most commonly planted varietal in the region.

Arrival in the United States

Horticulturist, George Gibbs, imported the Tribidrag varietal from the Austrian Imperial Nursery collection to the East Coast of the United States in the 1820s. At that time, the Austrian Empire ruled the kingdom of Hungary, which included Croatia.

Merriam-Webster suggests that the name Zinfandel was first used in 1858 and is probably a modification of the obsolete and misapplied Hungarian tzinifándli, czirifandli, which referred to an Austrian white wine grape, Zierfandler.

Used as a table grape, Zinfandel was not recognized for its wine potential until it arrived in California, most likely around the time of the Gold Rush during the 1850s. Zinfandel was recognized as an exceptional grape variety for wine making in California in the 1880s and by 1884, it is estimated that Zinfandel accounted for half of California’s vineyards.

The Wine

Primitivo produces medium to full bodied wine that is notable for its intensity and complexity of fruit flavors and often contain a “jammy” component in both bouquet and flavor. The berries’ high sugar content tend to produce higher alcohol wines. (It’s a good idea to check the ABV on the label.)

As always, fermentation choices provide the foundation of the desired wine style while the selection of aging vessels influence the presence of tannins and smoothness of the wine.

Filling amphora with Primitivo
Filling the amphora with Primitivo

Dolio Winery’s Primitivo

With Primitivo in our wine menu, Dolio Winery can offer a full array of red Italian wines that range from bright, medium bodied wines to deep, smooth, full-bodied wines. Our first experience with Primitivo in 2014 vintage resulted in a Double Gold Award from the Seattle Wine Awards.

Our 2016 Primitivo is available as of this post. Our style highlights dried fig and raisins while brimming with jammy cherry notes. The deep, smooth finish features hints of white pepper. It may remind some of port wine.

To date, all of our released Primitivo wines have been through extensive barrel aging in American Oak barrels. These barrels help to accentuate the pairability with foods that are robust like BBQ pork. Equally delicious, the vanilla barrel overtones prefectly complement fudgy chocolate desserts.

Dolio Primitivo on Tasting Room wall
Dolio Winery’s 2016 Primitivo

Future vintages of Dolio Winery’s Primitivo include 2017, 2018 (aged in amphora), and a small batch from a temperamental 2019 vineyard year.

Resources

http://www.vinidipuglia.com/index.php/en/primitivo

https://www.vivino.com/wine-news/the-origin-of-zinfandel-and-primitivo

http://fps.ucdavis.edu/grapebook/winebook.cfm?chap=Zinfandel

https://www.winetraveler.com/grape/primitivo/

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zinfandel

http://www.ucanr.org/sites/intvit/files/77319.pdf

https://www.winetraveler.com/grape/primitivo/

Barbera: An Italian Red Grape Varietal

Dolio Winery's Harmony and 2014 Barbera

The Grape

Barbera’s origins lie in northwest Italy’s Piedmont region. This red grape varietal is the third most planted grape in Italy. Grown worldwide, Barbera vineyards can also be found in California, Washington State, Australia, Argentina, and South Africa. 

Italy's Wine Regions
Italy’s Wine Regions Courtesy Wine Enthusiast

Ampelographers suspect the origin of Barbera dates as far back as the 7th century, much longer than the more familiar Cabernet Sauvignon recognized since the 17th century. (Ampelography is the field of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines.)

In the 1800s, Italian winemakers emigrated and introduced Barbera grapevines to the United States.

The Wine

Historically, because it generally had lighter body and less concentration than the nobler Nebbiolo from the same region, Barbera was given a lesser status. Longer aged Nebbiolo was reserved for special occasions while younger and more readily available Barbera was used as a table wine and known as the ‘wine of the people’.

Naturally high in acidity and low in tannins, Barbera can be considered ripe, bright and tangy. It is presented both in blended wines and as a single varietal. While ‘Old World’ Barbera is a traditional Italian wine that’s highly acidic and quite tart, ‘New World’ Barbera wine tends to be full-bodied and more fruity.

Dolio Winery's Harmony
Dolio Winery’s Harmony is a blend of 50% Barbera and 50% Syrah.

Pair Barbera wines with rich dark meats, mushrooms, herbs, herbaceous cheeses like blue cheese, higher tannin foods like root vegetables & braised greens. The bright acidity in the wine will complement a rich fatty or high tannin dish.

Barbera ages well, though it may be difficult to find cellared Barbera, as it drinks so nicely as a young wine.

Dolio Winery’s Barbera

Italian red varietals are central to our winery so Barbera is a regular on our wine list. While not many acres are dedicated to this varietal in WA State, the quality of fruit we can acquire has been outstanding.

Our winemaker allows Barbera to spend ample time in barrels which builds tannins to complement Barbera’s natural acidity. The result is a bright ‘New World’ style wine with fruit notes of sour cherry, anise, fig and caramel.

Winemaker, Don Klase, with his first vintage of Barbera
Winemaker, Don Klase, with his first vintage of Barbera

As of this post, Dolio’s single vintage 2014 Barbera is available. Also on our wine list is the very popular Harmony blend of 50% Barbera and 50% Syrah which showcases the brightness of Barbera and deep finish of Syrah.

Some of our favorite surprise pairing items with Barbera include Blood Orange Truffles and Tiramisu.

Cheers!

Resources

https://vinepair.com/wine-101/learn-barbera-red-wine/

https://www.wine-searcher.com/grape-27-barbera

https://barberafestival.com/barbera/ 

Guide to Barbera Wine

https://www.vinovest.co/blog/barbera-wine

blog.lastbottlewines.com/learn-wine/barbera/